CEDA 토론에서 교차조사(질의, 상호질문, 신문)의 방법

CEDA 토론에서 교차조사(질의, 상호질문, 신문)의 방법

CEDA 토론의 과정 중에 교차조사라는 과정이 있습니다. 다른 말로는 질의, 상호질문 또는 반대신문 과정이라고도 합니다. 교차조사는 CEDA 방식 토론에서 가장 핵심적이며 역동적인 토론과정이기도 합니다. 상대측 입론이 끝나고 바로 교차조사가 진행되는데 상대측 입론에서 나타나는 논리적 오류를 부각시키며 상대를 공격하는 신문과정입니다. 그러므로 교차조사자는 토론을 역동적으로 이끌어 갈 수 있도록 교차조사를 진행해야 하며 또한 심사위원과 청중으로부터 많은 호응을 얻을 수 있는 기회로 삼아야 합니다. 그럼에도 불구하고 토론자들은 교차조사를 진행하면서 많은 부분에서 미숙한 면을 보이고 있습니다. 특히 초보 토론자의 경우 대부분 교차조사를 형식으로 진행하는 경우가 많습니다. 교차조사는 토론의 다른 과정보다도 많은 경험이 필요하고 또한 비판적 듣기를 통해서 논리적 오류를 발견해야 하므로 순발력과 비판적 사고 능력이 필요한 과정입니다.

1. 교차조사의 목적

교차조사를 진행하는 측에서는 분명한 목적을 가지고 진행해야 합니다. 교차조사가 단순한 질문을 하는 시간이 아닙니다. 가장 중요한 것은 질문의 의도를 분명히 알고서 진행해야 합니다. 질문의 의도를 생각하지도 않고 상대방의 주장이나 근거를 확인하는 정도의 질문을 던져서는 안 됩니다. 교차조사의 목적은 다음과 같습니다.

첫째 상대측 주장이나 근거가 불투명할 때 명확하게 확정해야 합니다.

둘째 상대측의 논리적 오류를 찾아 청중과 심사위원에게 드러냅니다.

셋째 연속된 질문을 통하여 상대의 근거에 대한 잘못된 부분을 시인(是認)을 받아내야 합니다.

넷째 심사위원들에게 날카로운 비판력과 분석력을 보여줌으로써 심사결과를 유리하게 이끌어 갈 수 있습니다.

다섯째 교차조사를 통해서 얻은 유용한 정보와 상대측의 시인(是認)한 내용들을 가지고 반박과정을 유리하게 이끌어 가야 합니다.

2. 교차조사의 방법

 교차조사는 교차조사를 진행하는 측에서 모든 권한을 가지고 진행합니다. 즉 상대측의 답변까지도 통제하면서 진행할 수 있습니다. 상대측에서 답변을 너무 길게 할 경우 중단시킬 수 도 있습니다. 모든 권한이 질문자에게 있다고 해서 상대측을 법정에서 피의자를 심문하듯이 지나치게 다그치거나 예의에 벗어나는 행동을 해서는 안 되며, 정중하게 질의를 해야 합니다. 교차조사자와 답변자는 상대측이 아닌 심사위원이나 청중을 바라보며 질문과 답변을 해야 합니다.

1) 질문할 내용과 관련된 상대측 발언 내용을 제시하고 질문을 합니다.

   상대측이 발언하지 않은 내용은 질문해서는 안 됩니다.

2) 짧게 여러 번의 질문을 통해서 질문의 의도가 무엇인지 심사위원들이 알 수 있도록 합니다. 단순하게 상대측의 발언 내용을 확인하는 수준의 질문을 해서는 안 됩니다.

3) 상대측이 어떤 답변을 할 것인지를 예상하고 질문을 해야 합니다.

4) 상대측이 짧은 답변이 나올 수 있도록 질문을 구성하거나 예/아니오 같은 단답형 답변이 나올 수 있도록 합니다.

5) “어떻게 생각하십니까?”라는 개방형 질문은 해서는 안 됩니다.

   짧은 교차시간을 상대측이 자신들의 입장을 견고히 하는데 사용할 수 있으며 교차조사를 진행하는 측에서는 시간이 부족하여 준비한 질문을 할 수 없으므로 피해야 합니다.

6) 질문은 되도록 간결하고 이해하기 쉽게 구성하여 답변자가 질문을 이해하지 못해 다시 질문하는 일이 없도록 합니다.

7) 상대측이 모호한 대답을 할 수 있는 질문은 해서는 안 됩니다.

8) 자기 팀 주장과 배치되는 부분이나 논리적 오류를 찾아내서 질문합니다.

9) 상대측이 인용한 자료의 출처나 제시된 근거의 사실여부 등을 면밀하게 따져 질문합니다.

10) 통계자료의 경우 조사일자와 모집단의 크기와 표본추출 방법 등을 확인하여 질문한다.

3. 교차조사의 답변요령

 답변자는 교차시간에 자기 측 주장을 정당화 하는 시간으로 사용해서는 안 되며, 질문자의 의도에 휘말리지 말고 효과적인 답변을 해야 합니다.

1) 가능한 간략하고 명료하게 답변합니다.

2) 입론에서 논증한 내용에 모순이 되지 않도록 답변합니다.

3) 질문의 내용을 잘 알고 있듯이 자신감 있게 적극적으로 답변합니다.

4) 모르는 내용에 대해서는 망설이거나 “잘 모르겠습니다.”라고 답변하지 말고 “반박시간에 말씀 드리겠습니다.” 라고 답변을 미루는 전략을 사용합니다.

5) 입론에서 언급한 내용을 근거로 답변을 합니다.

6) 새로운 내용으로 답변할 때는 지금까지 다져온 논증에서 벗어나지 않도록 해야 합니다.

7) 상대측에서 의도적일지라도 입론의 내용을 확인하는 식의 질문을 한다면 “이미 입론에서 ∼라고 말씀드렸습니다.”라고 하며 역공을 합니다.

8) 상대측에서 답변을 강요하는 경우에는 “∼라는 가정 하에서 답변하겠습니다.”라고 전제한 후 답변합니다.

6 대답
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